全米からTwitterに投稿されるヘイトスピーチ(差別的表現)の出所をピンポイントでつきとめ、表示する新しいマップが公開された。これによると、こういった投稿を行うツイッター利用者の多くは米国の東半分地域に住んでいるようだ。

この「ヘイト・マップ」は、カリフォルニア州にあるハンボルト州立大学で地理学を専攻する学生らが作成したものだ。2012年6月から2013年4月までの期間に投稿された、15万件以上の位置情報付きツイートが分析され、人種差別発言、同性愛者や身体障害者に対する蔑視を意図した用語を含んだツイートを追跡し、これらの用語が使われている文脈についても判断を行っている。

われわれがこの地図で確認したところ、差別発言を含んだツイートの大部分は、小さな都市や田舎から発信されているようだ。例えば、同性愛者に対する差別発言が特に多い地区としては、オクラホマ州とテキサス州の州境付近。人種差別発言の多発地帯としては、人口が密集しているとは思えないインディアナ州西部が挙げられる。

より詳しくいえば、ノースダコタ州最大の都市であるファーゴよりは、同州の中部から、より多くの人種差別ツイートが発信されている。また、人種差別ツイートの主な発信源は米南東部だが、同性愛者蔑視ツイートは広く全米各地から寄せられているようだ。

今回のプロジェクトは、2012年のオバマ大統領再選後に行われた、人種差別的中傷ツイートのマッピング・プロジェクトに続くものだ。学生らは両調査のデータ収集のために、位置情報付きツイートの巨大なアーカイブ「DOLLY (Digital Online Life and You)Project」を活用した。このアーカイブではどんな種類のツイートも追跡可能だ。「grits」(伝統的なコーンミール)という言葉が最も多くツイートされている地域を示したマップもある(もちろん、米南部だ)。

このマップを使えば、あらゆる差別発言を、カテゴリー別や特定用語の使用状況を含めて確認できる。ただし、性差別用語と知的障害者に対する蔑視表現は含まれていない。時代遅れの言い回しもリストアップされており、そうした用語の使用頻度が低い理由になっているようだ。

twitter hate speech

[US版で2013年5月13日に掲載した記事を翻訳しました]
[Alexis Kleinman日本語版:遠藤康子/ガリレオ]

Also on HuffPost:

Loading Slideshow...
  • Confessionals, Office Gossip

    If you're angry at your boss or playing hookey from work, you probably shouldn't tweet about it. Furthermore, warns Amber Yoo of <a href="http://www.privacyrights.org/" target="_hplink">PrivacyRights.org</a>, tweeting your opinions about work-related topics can lead to trouble in-office. "Unless they are glowing, don't Tweet opinions about your company, clients, products and services. Employers are increasingly monitoring employee conduct on Twitter," says Yoo. "A <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/07/15/fired-over-twitter-tweets_n_645884.html#s112801&title=Cisco_Fatty_Loses" target="_hplink">tweet could cost you your job</a> if you aren't careful."

  • Intimate Personal Information

    Details from your personal history are best left out of your Twitter feed. You can put yourself at risk for identity theft by revealing your birth date and place, your social security number, your maiden name or your mother's maiden name. Twitter also advises users to be wary of phishing schemes. "People are not always who they claim to be on their Twitter profile and you should be wary of any communication that asks for your private contact information, personal information, or passwords," according to the <a href="http://support.twitter.com/entries/115246-safety-privacy-cyberbullying-and-cyberharassment" target="_hplink">Twitter Help Center</a>.

  • Exact Loctions

    Twitter's <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/03/12/twitter-location-tool-exp_n_496464.html" target="_hplink">geolocation tool</a> can help you broadcast your location without squandering precious text space. However, geotags could potentially be used by stalkers to <a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2010-08-08/foursquare-and-stalking-is-geotagging-dangerous/" target="_hplink">secretly track</a> someone's location. The good news is that you can <a href="http://support.twitter.com/articles/78525-about-the-tweet-location-feature" target="_hplink">turn this tool off</a> at any time.

  • Vacation Timeframes

    Burglars have admitted to using social networks to plan <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/07/20/burglars-using-twitter-fa_n_652666.html" target="_hplink">home invasions</a>. If you share a public tweet saying that you'll be on vacation for a week, you're also telling your followers that you've left your home untended.

  • Daily Routines

    "Be careful not to share your daily routine," says Amber Yoo of <a href="http://www.privacyrights.org/" target="_hplink">PrivacyRights.org</a>. "Tweeting about walking to work, where you go on your lunch break, or when you head home is risky because it may allow a criminal to track you."

  • Your Kids' Names And Routines

    Children can be easy targets for online predators and identity thieves. You can keep your kids safe by leaving their names out of your Twitter feeds and refraining from tweeting about where you pick them up or drop them off every day.

  • High-Risk Activities

    Insurance companies have been known to check Twitter when <a href="http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2011/02/28/bisb0228.htm" target="_hplink">investigating compensation claims</a> and may even look to social media when <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/02/22/facebook-twitter-users-co_n_471548.html" target="_hplink">assessing a customer's risks</a>. Tweeting about frequent climbing trips, for example, could result in a premiums hike. If you've filed for disability compensation, your insurance company could search for your tweets about high-risk activities and use them to supplement a fraud case against you.

  • Personal Attacks On Other Users

    The Twitter Help Center <a href="http://support.twitter.com/entries/115246-safety-privacy-cyberbullying-and-cyberharassment" target="_hplink">advises</a> users not to engage with bullies: <blockquote>You may encounter people on Twitter who you don't like or who say things that you disagree with or find offensive. Please remain courteous, even if the other people are not. Retaliation can reinforce bad behavior and only encourages bullies. Don't forward or retweet bullying or mean messages. Remember that the things you say can be very hurtful to other people. Don't turn into a bully yourself.</blockquote>

  • Geotagged Photos

    It's a risky move to tweet photos that show what you look like and what your home looks like. Including geotags with these types of photos could put you at risk. Moreover, some smartphones <a href="http://www.switched.com/2010/08/24/i-can-stalk-u-reveals-twitpics-as-creepy-tracking-devices/" target="_hplink">automatically embed geolocation data</a> into your photos, and you may not realize how much private data you're revealing with a simple snapshot. According to <a href="http://www.privacyrights.org/geotagging-privacy" target="_hplink">PrivacyRights.org</a>, "Your real-time location may indicate your home and work addresses, your commuting patterns, what religious institution you visit, how often you go to a doctor, political rallies you attend or whether you are seeking the advice of a lawyer."

  • Racy Or Inappropriate Photos

    "Employers routinely check out Twitter prior to hiring an individual, and have referenced social networking as helping them make choices on future employees," says <a href="http://www.reputation.com/" target="_hplink">Reputation.com</a> founder Michael Fertik. "Use better than average common sense when uploading photos to Twitter - if you wouldn't want your boss or grandmother to see it, it's probably a good idea to hold tight and keep it offline."

  • Every Detail Of Your Life

    Some Twitterers annoy other users by tweeting constantly. Sifting through minutiae on Twitter can be a chore. "It gets annoying and takes space and attention away from other Twitterers' links and observations," <a href="http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2345283,00.asp" target="_hplink">writes</a> PCWorld. "If you have that much to say, maybe it belongs on a blog."