今、アメリカは政府機関が一部閉鎖される異常事態だ。しかも、10月17日には債務上限引き上げの期限がやってくる。債務上限が引き上げられなかったら、アメリカはデフォルト(債務不履行)になる。そうなったら、世界の経済は大混乱だ。

アメリカでは、政府債務の総額を法律で定め、上限に達すると議会が法律を改正して上限を引き上げる。現在の債務上限額は約16兆7000億ドル(約1640兆円)だ。この上限以上に債務を増やすことはできない。だから上限を引き上げないとデフォルトになるわけだ。でも、引き上げのためには上院・下院双方の承認が必要になる。

なんで今回はぎりぎりまで引き上げが決まらないのか。原因は、野党共和党が、オバマ大統領の推進する「オバマケア」に強硬に反対しているからだ。共和党は、オバマケアの実施を先に伸ばしたい。できれば、撤回させたい。だからオバマケアを執行するための予算案に反対し続け、結果的に予算案が成立せずに政府機関が閉鎖されてしまった。

今度は、債務上限引き上げが人質だ。17日までに引き上げをするかどうかは、オバマケアをどうするかにかかっている。でも、オバマ大統領は撤回する気はさらさらない。共和党がオバマケアの実施を先送りにする暫定予算案を提案しても断固拒否。一方、共和党もオバマケアを廃止したい保守派の圧力があるから引く構えを見せていない。

でも、ちょっと待って。そもそも「オバマケア」って何だ? 大体の人がそうだと思うが、あなたもおそらく「オバマケア」という言葉は聞いたことがあっても、それが何なのかよくわかっていないだろう。あなたの叔父さんがFacebookに投稿したのを読んで、とっても不安になって、「アメリカがケニアのソビエト連邦になってしまう」とか何とかよくわからないことを思ってしまうかもしれない。

でも、いいことを教えよう。オバマケアはどうやらそういったものじゃないらしい。どう、安心したかな。新しいヘルスケアの法律にまつわる「謎」について、今度こそちゃんと説明してみよう。ハフィントンポストUS版のヘルスケア関連レポーター、ジェフリー・ヤング記者が今さら聞くのはちょっと恥ずかしい14の質問に答えてくれた。

1. オバマケアってそもそも何?

「オバマケア」 は アフォーダブル・ケア・アクト(ACA)という、アメリカの医療保険制度を改革する法律のニックネームだ。この法律には賛否両論があったが、2010年に議会を通過しオバマ大統領が署名した。野党の共和党は今でもこの法律を廃案にしようと躍起になっているのだが、(共和党にとっては)残念ながら、2012年に最高裁判所で合憲判決が出た。

この法律の目的は、より多くのアメリカ国民に医療保険に加入してもらうこと。現在、4800万人のアメリカ国民が医療保険にひとつも入っていない(訳注・アメリカは日本と違って国民皆保険ではない)。この法律では、保険に加入していない人でも職場を通じて自分の保険を買うことができるようになる。

オバマケアによって、保険の悪しき慣例もいくつかなくなる。現在、保険会社は持病を抱えている人の保険加入を断ることはできないし、医療費が巨額になったからといって加入している保険のプランから追い出されることもないし、保険金の支払に上限を設けることもできない。また、医療費の自己負担分も年間で一人当たり6350ドル(約62万円) 、家族当たり1万2700ドル(約125万円)を超えてはならないとされている。大きな病気や事故でこの上限を超えた費用がかかる場合、その分は全額、医療保険が負担することになる。

オバマケアは 「エッセンシャル・ヘルス・ベネフィット」(基本的医療給付) も規定していて、あらゆる医療保険プランに保険適用が義務付けられている。これには薬の処方や妊産婦医療も含まれる。今の医療保険には、この規定のないプランもたくさんある。この規定によると、人間ドックや避妊も追加料金なしで利用できるようになる。

2. 共和党がオバマケアを阻止しようとして、政府機関が閉鎖されちゃったけど?

実はオバマケアを実施する上で困ることはない。皮肉に聞こえるかもしれないが、たとえ政府機関が閉鎖され職員が仕事できなくなっても、オバマケアのプログラムは粛々と実行される。

3. どうして 「オバマケア」 と呼ばれているの?

オバマ大統領が推進したから。野党の共和党は、初めのうち馬鹿にするつもりでこう呼び始めたんだけど、そうしたらオバマ大統領が自分でも使い始めたんだ。今ではみんなオバマケアと呼んでいる。もっとも、たぶんオバマ大統領は考え直した方がいい。「オバマケア」では 「アフォーダブル・ケア・アクト」 という名前ほども票を集められないだろうからね。

4. だとすると、私がすることは何?

たぶん何もない。もしあなたが他の80%のアメリカ人と同じように、自分や家族の仕事を通じて健康保険に加入しているか、政府のプログラムに登録しているなら。これにはメディケア(高齢者、身体障害者を対象にした健康保険)、メディケイド(州政府運営の低所得者層対象の健康保険)、子供の健康保険プログラムなどがある。おめでとう、ここであなたはこの記事を読み終わってもいい。

もしあなたがまだ本当に困っているなら、会社に行って、2014年にベネフィットに変更があるかどうか確かめるといい。

そして、もしあなたが自分の医療保険を購入することになるのなら、または保険に入っていないのなら、もう少し調べて、やるべきことがある。

5. オーケー、私が医療保険を買うとしたら、知っておかなきゃいけないことは何? やっておかないといけないことは?

今あなたが加入しているプランは、来年になったら無効になっているかもしれない。それがオバマケアの新基準に沿ったものじゃないとそうなる。これはいいニュースだ。それでおそらく、あなたはより良い健康保険に入ることができるからだ。悪いニュースもある。保険料が増えるかもしれない。そうしたら新しい医療保険取引所 (health-insurance exchange) で新しいプランを見比べて買うことができるだろう。

6. 医療保険取引所って何?  共産主義みたいだ。

「取引所 (exchange)」 は役人言葉で政府の新しい健康保険のウェブショップを指す。州立もあれば連邦政府が運営するものもある。「市場 (marketplace)」 とも呼ばれる。こうしたウェブサイトに行けば、いろいろな健康保険のプランを見比べて買うことができる。マサチューセッツ州はこうした取引所を2006年から開いていて、アメリカでもっとも保険未加入率が低い。

こうした取引所は、人々が保険料を支払う際の援助も行っている。

どんな保険契約が手に入るのか、またどんな支援を受けられる資格を得る方法を教えてもらうために、取引所に基本的な個人情報を与えないといけないだろう。年齢、住所、収入、家族構成、それから煙草を吸うかどうかなどだ。

取引所はほぼ全員が対象となっている。でも、職場を通じて健康保険にすでに加入しているとか、メディケイドのような政府のプログラムに加入している人は、おそらく今のまま持ち続ける方がいいだろう。


7. 政府が経営する健康保険の市場? どんどん間違った方向に行ってしまうんじゃない??  もちろん皮肉だけど。

皮肉か、了解。そんなに驚くことじゃないが、オンラインの取引所には問題点も見つかっている。当局はこうした問題点を、実際に事業を開始した10月1日から、新しいプランでの保険適用が始まる1月1日までの間に直してしまいたいと望んでいる。

8. オーケー、ではオバマケアになったら私の保険料はいくらになる?

うーん、簡単には答えられないな。保険料は多岐にわたるだろう。高控除免責プランで国全体の平均をみると補助金を含めずに月額249ドル(約2万5000円)となる。でも州によってまちまちで、ミネソタ州では144ドル(約1万4000円)だけど、ワイオミング州では425ドル(約4万2000円)だ。レートは年齢、地理的な場所、家族構成、そして場合によっては喫煙の有無が基本になる。月額の保険料や、医療費の個人の実費負担額によって、さまざまなプランがある。

いいニュースは、この法律に基づくと女性の保険料が男性より高くなってはならない。これは今でもほとんどの州でそうなっているけれど。お年寄りの払う額は、今若い人が払っている額の3倍を超えてはならない。これは現在いくつかの州では5倍とかそれ以上でもいいことになっている。

obamacare costs

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オバマケアの価格はどう再編成されるか
州ごとの基本健康保険の平均価格、高控除率の場合(アメリカ政府提供)

最低価格のプラン(ブロンズ)の場合の保険料(加重平均)

ノート: 上の図に示した保険料は最低価格のプラン (ブロンズ) を36の州立の市場を含む格付けエリアのそれぞれで加重平均したものである。2013年9月18日の、"State Partnership Marketplaces" と "Federally-Facilitated Marketplaces" および12の "State based Marketplaces" のデータである。各格付けエリアの加重平均は州ごとの65歳以下の人口に基づいた。"state-based Marketplaces" の場合は、保険料はカリフォルニア州からニューヨーク州までのすべての格付けエリアにわたる加重平均であり、ワシントンDC、ロードアイランド州とバーモント州では全州域にわたる。その他の州については、保険料は次の格付けエリアを選んだ。コロラド州デンバー; コネチカット州ブリッジポート, ハートフォード、ニューヘブン ; メリーランド州ボルチモア; ミネソタ州ミネアポリス、セントポール ; ネバダ州ラスベガス; オレゴン州ポートランド ; ワシントン州シアトル。年齢の加重は "RAND Corporation" の見積もりによる各市場での予想年齢分布に基づいた。

出典: Department of Health and Human Services
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9. それで、政府は私の保険料の支払いをどのように援助してくれるの?

税控除が受けられる。収入を基本にして、支払った保険料の一部を払い戻してもらえる。もし税控除を先に受けたいなら、政府は保険料の一部を肩代わりして、あなたの保険会社に直接送金する。そうでなければ、まずあなたが全額を払い込み、税金の申告時に控除を請求することになる。税控除を受けることができるのは、収入が連邦政府の定める「貧困レベル」とその4倍との間に相当する人々で、一人暮らしなら、おおよそ1万1500ドル(約113万円)と4万6000ドル(約453万円)の間に当たる。

さらに割引を受けることができるのは、収入がその「貧困レベル」の250%、つまり2万8725ドル(約283万円)までの人で、保険控除の免責分や自己負担金など4つの実費負担について認められる。

あなたの住んでいる地域によっては、メディケイドの資格が得られるかもしれない。これはいくつかの州の連合による低所得者向けヘルスケアのプログラムで、収入が例の貧困レベルの133%、つまり一人暮らしの場合おおよそ15300ドル(約150万円) までの人が対象となる。オバマケアのお金をメディケアの拡大に用いる州は半分ほどしかない。

10. もし私がオバマの社会主義政策に反抗して健康保険への加入を拒否したとしたら、どうなる?

この法律によると、合法的なアメリカ合衆国住民のほぼ全員が何らかの健康保険に加入しなくてはならず、違反者には罰金が科せられる。つまり恐るべき 「個人強制保険」 なのだ。病院でケアが必要なのに医療費が払えなかったり借金を膨らませたりするような人々を、極力少なくしようという趣旨だ。保守的なアイデアだね、いずれにせよ。

もし既に健康保険に加入しているのなら、明らかになにも悩むことはない。もしあなたの年収が10000ドル(約98万円) 以下なら、なにも悩むことはない。もし年収の8%以下に保険料が収まる健康保険のプランが見つからないのなら、なにも悩むことはない。法律によるとまだたくさんの適用除外がある。

11. 罰金はいくら?

95ドル(約9400円)または年収の1%のいずれか金額の多い方から始まる (もし年収が10000ドル以上ある場合。これ以下の場合には罰金は課されない) 。この罰金の金額は2015年と2016年に引き上げられて、最終的には695ドル(約7万円)または年収の2.5%の多い方、となる。内国歳入庁(IRS)はこの面白い罰金制度について細かな解説をしている。

罰金が科せられてもわざわざ支払う必要はない。IRSはあなたへの税金還付があればそこから差し引く。その年に払わなかったからと言ってIRSが取り立てに来ることもない。でも金利分は毎年上乗せされる。とにかく、だからと言って牢屋にぶち込まれたりはしない。

12. オバマケアのもとでも同じ主治医でいいの?

オバマケアには、あなたが加入するヘルスケアの保険業者がどうすべきかは定められていない。これまでと同じように、保険契約が変われば、オバマケアの「ネットワーク内」にある医者と「ネットワーク外」の医者が変わってくる。あなたは保険契約によって主治医がネットワーク内だということを確認すればいいだけだ。そうでない場合にはその医者にかかるとき医療費が高くなる。

ひとつだけ注意しないといけないのは、オバマケアの取引所で売られる健康保険プランの多くが、普通に職場を通じて提供されるよりも、保険業者の選択肢が少なくなるという点だ。費用を下げるためには仕方がないことだ。とはいえ、もともと保険に加入していない多くの人にとっては、選択肢といっても結局、救急医療しかなくなるのだが。取引所では保険業者のリストを何とか増やそうと努力を続けている。

13. もっとくわしく知りたいとき、登録するとき、誰に聞けばよい?

オバマケアの取引所では電話のホットラインを準備して、応募の手続きがうまく進むようにしてくれる。HealthCare.gov が連邦政府のメインのウェブサイトで、情報を得たり登録ができるし、州立の取引所や手助けしてくれる地域のグループへのリンクも張ってある。連邦政府の取引所も、州立の取引所もそれぞれホットラインを準備している。

これでも一人でやるには難しいと感じるなら、オバマケアのシェルパ(案内人)もいる。 「navigators (ナビゲーター)」 とか 「in-person assistors (対面アシスタント)」 とか 「certified application counselors (認定アプリケーション・カウンセラー)」 と呼ばれる人たちだ。「エンロール・アメリカ」などの民間団体も援助してくれる。保険の代理店や仲買人も喜んで援助してくれるだろう。

州の健康機関やメディケイドの事務所も手助けしてくれるかもしれない。地域の健康センターもそうだ。ここは主に低所得で保険に加入していない患者へのサービスをしている。何をしなくてはいけないか、どこで助けが得られるかなどの情報は、いろいろなソースを通して伝えられている。たとえば地域コミュニティの組織、教会、慈善団体、薬局、病院、医院、公共の図書館などだ。援助の度合いは州ごとに大きく違う。いくつかの州ではオバマケアの導入に抵抗を続けている。共和党の州知事だったり、共和党優位の州議会だったりして、政治的な対立がある。

14. 知っておかないといけない締切日はあるの?

2014年度の保険プランへの登録は10月1日から開始され3月31日まで続く。もし新年早々に準備を終わらせたければ、12月15日が選択の期限だ。それ以降となると、プランを選定してから実際に利用可能になるまで何週間か待たされることになる。その翌年はもう少し時間がなくなる。2015年度の健康保険プランへの登録は2014年10月15日から12月7日までとなっている。

原文はこちら

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  • 10. フランス

    Total expenditure on health per capita: $3,978 Expenditure as % of GDP: 11.8% (3rd most) Annual growth of total health expenditure: +2.7% (18th most) Life expectancy: 81.5 years (8th highest) Source: <a href="http://247wallst.com/2012/03/29/countries-that-spend-the-most-on-health-care/#ixzz1qWtpJfhZ" target="_hplink">24/7 Wall St. </a>

  • 9. ドイツ

    Total expenditure on health per capita: $4,218 Expenditure as % of GDP: 11.6% (4th most) Annual growth of total health expenditure: +4% (15th most) Life expectancy: 80.3 years (18th highest) Source: <a href="http://247wallst.com/2012/03/29/countries-that-spend-the-most-on-health-care/#ixzz1qWtpJfhZ" target="_hplink">24/7 Wall St. </a>

  • 8. オーストリア

    Total expenditure on health per capita: $4,298 Expenditure as % of GDP: 11% (8th most) Annual growth of total health expenditure: +2.2% Life expectancy: 80.4 years (16th highest) Source: <a href="http://247wallst.com/2012/03/29/countries-that-spend-the-most-on-health-care/#ixzz1qWtpJfhZ" target="_hplink">24/7 Wall St. </a>

  • 7. デンマーク

    Total expenditure on health per capita: $4,348 Expenditure as % of GDP: 11.5% (6th most) Annual growth of total health expenditure: +6% (11th most) Life expectancy: 79.0 years (25th highest) Source: <a href="http://247wallst.com/2012/03/29/countries-that-spend-the-most-on-health-care/#ixzz1qWtpJfhZ" target="_hplink">24/7 Wall St. </a>

  • 6.カナダ

    Total expenditure on health per capita: $4,478 Expenditure as % of GDP: 11.3% (7th most) Annual growth of total health expenditure: +7.4% (7th most) Life expectancy: 80.7 years (tied for 12th highest)

  • 5. ルクセンブルク

    Total expenditure on health per capita: $4,808 Expenditure as % of GDP: 7.8% (7th least) Annual growth of total health expenditure: +8% (6th most) Life expectancy: 80.7 years (tied for 12th highest) Source: <a href="http://247wallst.com/2012/03/29/countries-that-spend-the-most-on-health-care/#ixzz1qWtpJfhZ" target="_hplink">24/7 Wall St. </a>

  • 4. オランダ

    Total expenditure on health per capita: $4,914 Expenditure as % of GDP: 12% (2nd most) Annual growth of total health expenditure: +16.4% (the most) Life expectancy: 80.6 years (14th highest) Source: <a href="http://247wallst.com/2012/03/29/countries-that-spend-the-most-on-health-care/#ixzz1qWtpJfhZ" target="_hplink">24/7 Wall St. </a>

  • 3. スイス

    Total expenditure on health per capita: $5,344 Expenditure as % of GDP: 11.6% (5th most) Annual growth of total health expenditure: +2.8% (17th most) Life expectancy: 82.3 years (2nd highest) Source: <a href="http://247wallst.com/2012/03/29/countries-that-spend-the-most-on-health-care/#ixzz1qWtpJfhZ" target="_hplink">24/7 Wall St. </a>

  • 2. ノルウェー

    Total expenditure on health per capita: $5,352 Expenditure as % of GDP: 9.6% (16th most) Annual growth of total health expenditure: +8.4% (4th most) Life expectancy: 81.0 years (10th highest) Source: <a href="http://247wallst.com/2012/03/29/countries-that-spend-the-most-on-health-care/#ixzz1qWtpJfhZ" target="_hplink">24/7 Wall St. </a>

  • 1. アメリカ合衆国

    Total expenditure on health per capita: $7,960 Expenditure as % of GDP: 17.4% (the most) Annual growth of total health expenditure: +2.2% (14th least) Life expectancy: 78.2 years (27th highest) Source: <a href="http://247wallst.com/2012/03/29/countries-that-spend-the-most-on-health-care/#ixzz1qWtpJfhZ" target="_hplink">24/7 Wall St. </a>



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    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: A Congressional staffer brings in a cart full of pizzas at the U.S. Capitol as both the Senate and House work on a deal to stop the government shutdown and avoid the country from defaulting October 15, 2013 on Capitol Hill in Washington, DC. The U.S. Government is on its 15th day of a shutdown. (Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: A Congressional staffer brings in a cart full of pizzas at the U.S. Capitol as both the Senate and House work on a deal to stop the government shutdown and avoid the country from defaulting October 15, 2013 on Capitol Hill in Washington, DC. The U.S. Government is on its 15th day of a shutdown. (Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: Speaker of the House Rep. John Boehner (R-OH) departs a press followiong a meeting of House Republicans at the U.S. Capitol October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its fifteenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: Speaker of the House Rep. John Boehner (R-OH) arrives for a press conference followiong a meeting of House Republicans at the U.S. Capitol October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its fifteenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: House Majority Leader Eric Cantor (R-VA) (C) walks to a meeting in Speaker of the House John Boehner's (R-OH) office at the U.S. Capitol October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its 15th day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: Speaker of the House Rep. John Boehner (R-OH) answers questions from the press followiong a meeting of House Republicans at the U.S. Capitol October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its fifteenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: Speaker of the House Rep. John Boehner (R-OH) answers questions from the press followiong a meeting of House Republicans at the U.S. Capitol October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its fifteenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: House Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) (C) walks away while flanked by House Majority Leader Eric Cantor (R-VA) (R) and Rep. Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) after speaking to the media folowing a House Republican caucus meeting at the U.S. Capitol, October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. With the government shutdown going into the fifttenth day and the deadline for raising the debt ceiling fast approaching, Democrats and Republicans may come to an agreement soon on passing a budget. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: House Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) (L) and House Majority Whip Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) walk to a Republican caucus meeting at the U.S. Capitol, October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. With the government shutdown going into the fifttenth day and the deadline for raising the debt ceiling fast approaching, Democrats and Republicans are working to come to an agreement soon on passing a budget. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: Speaker of the House Rep. John Boehner (R-OH) answers questions from the press followiong a meeting of House Republicans at the U.S. Capitol October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its fifteenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: House Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) (L) and House Majority Whip Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) walk to a Republican caucus meeting at the U.S. Capitol, October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. With the government shutdown going into the fifttenth day and the deadline for raising the debt ceiling fast approaching, Democrats and Republicans are working to come to an agreement soon on passing a budget. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: Speaker of the House Rep. John Boehner (R-OH) answers questions from the press followiong a meeting of House Republicans at the U.S. Capitol October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its fifteenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: House Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) (C) speaks to the media while flanked by House Majority Leader Eric Cantor (R-VA) (R) and Rep. Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) folowing a House Republican caucus meeting at the U.S. Capitol, October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. With the government shutdown going into the fifttenth day and the deadline for raising the debt ceiling fast approaching, Democrats and Republicans may come to an agreement soon on passing a budget. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: Speaker of the House Rep. John Boehner (R-OH) (L) arrives at a press conference followiong a meeting of House Republicans at the U.S. Capitol October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its fifteenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters 2nd Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: House Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) (C) speaks to the media following a House Republican caucus meeting at the U.S. Capitol, October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. With the government shutdown going into the fifttenth day and the deadline for raising the debt ceiling fast approaching, Democrats and Republicans may come to an agreement soon on passing a budget. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Congress Convenes On Columbus Day As Government Shutdown Continues

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 14: Speaker of the House John Boehner (R-OH) (3rd L) arrives at the U.S. Capitol on the 14th day of the partial federal government shutdown October 14, 2013 in Washington, DC. As Democratic and Republican leaders negotiate an end to the shutdown and a way to raise the debt limit, the White House postponed a planned Monday afternoon meeting with Boehner and other Congressional leaders. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

  • Congress Convenes On Columbus Day As Government Shutdown Continues

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 14: Accompanied by plainclothes U.S. Capitol Police, Speaker of the House John Boehner (R-OH) (2nd L) arrives at the U.S. Capitol on the 14th day of the partial federal government shutdown October 14, 2013 in Washington, DC. As Democratic and Republican leaders negotiate an end to the shutdown and a way to raise the debt limit, the White House postponed a planned Monday afternoon meeting with Boehner and other Congressional leaders. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

  • Congress Convenes On Columbus Day As Government Shutdown Continues

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 14: Speaker of the House John Boehner (R-OH) arrives at the U.S. Capitol on the 14th day of the partial federal government shutdown October 14, 2013 in Washington, DC. As Democratic and Republican leaders negotiate an end to the shutdown and a way to raise the debt limit, the White House postponed a planned Monday afternoon meeting with Boehner and other Congressional leaders. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

  • Congress Convenes On Columbus Day As Government Shutdown Continues

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 14: Speaker of the House John Boehner (R-OH) arrives at the U.S. Capitol on the 14th day of the partial federal government shutdown October 14, 2013 in Washington, DC. As Democratic and Republican leaders negotiate an end to the shutdown and a way to raise the debt limit, the White House postponed a planned Monday afternoon meeting with Boehner and other Congressional leaders. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: A man carries a Marine flag and a Confederate flag at a rally centered around reopening national memorials closed by the government shutdown, supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was inspired by a desire to re-open national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: A woman cheers at a rally centered around reopening national memorials closed by the government shutdown, supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was inspired by a desire to re-open national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: A crowd gathers at the World War Two Memorial to support a rally centered around reopening national memorials closed by the government shutdown, supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was inspired by a desire to re-open national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: Former Alaskan Governor Sarah Palin speaks at a rally supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, regarding the government shutdown on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was centered around re-opening national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: Former Alaskan Governor Sarah Palin speaks at a rally supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, regarding the government shutdown on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was centered around re-opening national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: A man (C) driving by gets into an altercation with an activist (L) during a rally centered around reopening national memorials closed by the government shutdown and supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was inspired by a desire to re-open national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: A crowd gathers at the World War Two Memorial to support a rally centered around reopening national memorials closed by the government shutdown, supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was inspired by a desire to re-open national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: A woman raises her hand in prayer at a rally centered around reopening national memorials closed by the government shutdown, supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was inspired by a desire to re-open national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX) meets supporters a rally supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, regarding the government shutdown on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was centered around re-opening national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX) speaks at a rally supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, regarding the government shutdown on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was centered around re-opening national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: A crowd gathers at the World War Two Memorial to support a rally centered around reopening national memorials closed by the government shutdown, supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was inspired by a desire to re-open national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: A man holds up a sign at a rally centered around reopening national memorials closed by the government shutdown, supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was inspired by a desire to re-open national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: People pray at a rally centered around reopening national memorials closed by the government shutdown, supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was inspired by a desire to re-open national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Military Supporters Rally In Washington To Re-Open WWII Memorial

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 13: A man carries an United States flag at a rally centered around reopening national memorials closed by the government shutdown, supported by military veterans, Tea Party activists and Republicans, on October 13, 2013 in Washington, DC. The rally was inspired by a desire to re-open national memorials, including the World War Two Memorial in Washington DC, though the rally also focused on the government shutdown and frustrations against President Obama. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: House Democratic Whip Steny Hoyer (D-MD) (3rd R) and House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) (2nd L) participate in a rally to urge Congress to end the government shutdown, at the U.S. Capitol, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its tenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-Ca) attends a rally to urge Congress to end the government shutdown, at the U.S. Capitol, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its tenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: Teri McLain (R) wears a hat she made that reads 'Lets End Shutdown' a rally to urge Congress to end the government shutdown at the U.S. Capitol, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its tenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: Teri McLain wears a hat she made that reads 'Lets End Shutdown' a rally to urge Congress to end the government shutdown at the U.S. Capitol, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its tenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) (2nd R) speaks during a rally to urge Congress to end the government shutdown, at the U.S. Capitol, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its tenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: A U.S. Capitol Police officer picks up money that was thrown on the floor by activists protesting against the government shutdown, at the Hart Senate Office building, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its tenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: Members of the Senate Democratic caucus board buses to take them to the White House for a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama on the government shutdown and debt limit increase October 10, 2013 in Washington, DC. Speaker of the House John Boehner said earlier today that he is prepared to offer a short-term increase in the debt limit in a separate meeting later today with Obama. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: Teri McLain wears a U.S. President Barack Obama figure during a rally to urge Congress to end the government shutdown at the U.S. Capitol, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its tenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: A U.S. Capitol Police officer picks up money that was thrown on the floor by activists protesting against the government shutdown at the Hart Senate Office building, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its tenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: Sen. Charles Schumer (D-NY) leaves the U.S. Capitol for a meeting with the rest of the Senate Democratic conference and U.S. President Barack Obama on the government shutdown and debt limit increase October 10, 2013 in Washington, DC. Speaker of the House John Boehner said earlier today that he is prepared to offer a short-term increase in the debt limit in a separate meeting later today with Obama. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: Members of the Senate Democratic caucus, including Sen. Al Franken (D-MN) (C), board buses to take them to the White House for a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama on the government shutdown and debt limit increase October 10, 2013 in Washington, DC. Speaker of the House John Boehner said earlier today that he is prepared to offer a short-term increase in the debt limit in a separate meeting later today with Obama. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: Sen. Mary Landrieu (D-LA) leaves the U.S. Capitol for a meeting with the rest of the Senate Democratic conference and U.S. President Barack Obama on the government shutdown and debt limit increase October 10, 2013 in Washington, DC. Speaker of the House John Boehner said earlier today that he is prepared to offer a short-term increase in the debt limit in a separate meeting later today with Obama. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: People hold signs during a rally to urge Congress to end the government shutdown at the U.S. Capitol, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its tenth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Continues Without Resolution

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) (R) leaves the U.S. Capitol for a meeting with the rest of the Senate Democratic conference and U.S. President Barack Obama on the government shutdown and debt limit increase October 10, 2013 in Washington, DC. Speaker of the House John Boehner said earlier today that he is prepared to offer a short-term increase in the debt limit in a separate meeting later today with Obama. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters Second Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 09: Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) is escorted through a crowd after attending a news conference on the government shutdown at the U.S. Capitol, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its ninth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters Second Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 09: Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) is flanked by Senate Democrats during a news conference on the government shutdown at the U.S. Capitol, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its ninth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters Second Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 09: Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) participates in a news conference on the government shutdown at the U.S. Capitol, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its ninth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Government Shutdown Enters Second Week

    WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 09: Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) is flanked by Senate Democrats as he speaks to the media during a news conference on the government shutdown at the U.S. Capitol, October 9, 2013 in Washington, DC. The U.S. government shutdown is entering its ninth day as the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives remain gridlocked on funding the federal government. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)